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BAHASA INGGRIS UMUM
Kelas : TOEFL, TOEFL 01 (READING/01)Supported  BY  INVIRCOM

Reading

This section is designed to measure your ability to read and understand short passages similar in topic and style to those that students are likely to encounter in North American universities and colleges. This section contains reading passages and questions about the passages.

     Leonardo da Vinci was born on April 15, 1452 in Vinci, Italy. He was the illegitimate son of Ser Piero, a Florentine notary and landlord, but lived on the estate andwas treated as a legitimate son.
     In 1483, Leonardo da Vinci drew the first model of a helicopter. It did not look very much like our modern day “copter,” but the idea of what it could do was about the same.
     Leonardo was an artist and sculptor. He was very interested in motion and movement and tried to show it in his art. In order to show movement, he found it helpful to study the way things moved. One subject he liked to study was birds and how they flew. He spent many hours watching the birds and examining the structure of their wings. He noticed how they cupped air with their wings and how the feathers helped hold the air. Through these studies, Leonardo began to understand how birds were able to fly.
    Like many other men, Leonardo began to dream of the day when people would be able to fly. He designed a machine that used all the things he had learned about flight, and thus became the first model of a helicopter.
     Poor Leonardo had only one problem, however. He had no way to give the necessary speed to his invention. You see, motors had not yet been invented and speed 19 was an important part of the flying process. It would be another four hundred years before the engine was invented and another fifty years before it was put to the test in an airplane. Leonardo’s dream of a helicopter finally came to pass in 1936.
     The Italian painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist, Leonardo died on May 2, 1519, and was buried in the cloister of San Fiorentino in Amboise.


1.   What is the author’s main point?
A.The invention of the helicopter.
B.Birds cup air with their wings and use feathers to help hold the air.
C.An overview of one of Leonardo da Vinci’s many skills.
D.Leonardo da Vinci was born in 1452 and died in 1519.

2.   The word problem in paragraph five could best be replaced by the word:
A.dilemma
B.mistake
C.danger
D.pain

3.   The word it in paragraph two refers to:
A.Leonardo da Vinci
B.The first model helicopter
C.1483
D.motion and movement

4.   Which paragraph explains why Leonardo’s helicopter was not successful in his lifetime:
A.paragraph 1
B.paragraph 2
C.paragraph 4
D.paragraph 5

5.   The word illegitimate in paragraph one is closest in meaning to:
A.against the law or illegal
B.not in correct usage
C.incorrectly deduced; illogical
D.born out of wedlock

6.   The following sentence would best complete which paragraph? “Since then people have been living out Leonardo’s dream of flying.”
A.paragraph 3
B.paragraph 4
C.paragraph 5
D.paragraph 2

7.   What was the main problem with Leonardo’s invention?
A.motors were not yet invented
B.the birds lost their feathers
C.he was illegitimate
D.he couldn’t draw

8.   The word they in the third paragraph refers to:
A.the feathers
B.the birds
C.the studies
D.the wings

9.   In what year was the first helicopter flown
A.1483
B.1452
C.1519
D.1936

10.   What two things did birds have that Leonardo da Vinci noticed helped them to fly?
A.wings and beaks
B.feathers and talons
C.wings and feathers
D.cups and feathers

11.   The word thus in the fourth paragraph could best be replaced by:
A.Hence
B.After
C.Unsuitably
D.Inappropriately

     Glass fibers are extremely strong; for their weight, they are stronger than steel. They are made by forcing molten glass through tiny holes called spinnerets. As many as four hundred spinnerets are placed together, and threads of glass much thinner than human hairs are drawn off at great speed-miles of thread per minute. As they speed along, the threads are coated thinly with a type of glue and twisted into a yarn.The glass fibers are used with plastics to make boats and car bodies. They are also woven into heavy cloth for window draperies and into strong belts for making tiresstronger.
     A special kind of glass fiber is causing a revolution in communications. A signal of light can be made to travel along the fiber for very long distances. By changing the quality of the light, many messages can be sent at once along one strand of glass. New office buildings are being “wired” with glass fibers as they are built. The glass fibers will be used to connect telephones and computers in ways that not long ago were eitherimpossible or too expensive.
     Glass wool traps air in a thick, light blanket of fibers. This blanket is then put into walls and ceilings to keep warm air in during the winter and cool air in during thesummer.
     To make glass wool, molten glass is fed into a spinning drum with many holes in it. As the glass threads stream out of the holes, they are forced downward by a blast of hot air and through a spray of glues. The threads are then further blown about to mix them up as they fall in a thick mat on a moving belt.
      The glass we see through and drink out of has many, many other uses besides the ones described here.

12.   What was the author’s main purpose in writing the article?
A.To inform you how special kinds of glass are made and used
B.To persuade you to investigate the many uses of glass beyond those mentioned in the article
C.To inform you about the strength of glass fibers
D.To inform you that glue is used to hold strands of glass together

13.   The word special in the second paragraph is closets in meaning to:
A.Distinct among others of a kind
B.Additional
C.Common
D.Species

14.   Glass fibers are made by forcing molten glass through:
A.Spinners
B.Spiderets
C.Spinnerets
D.Spinets

15.   The word changing in the second paragraph could best be replaced by the word:
A.Altering
B.Boring
C.Bringing
D.Doing

16.   What are glass fibers woven into cloth for?
A.Draperies
B.Cars and boats
C.Glasses
D.Glue

17.   The word fed in the fourth paragraph means:
A.To give food to
B.To minister to
C.To support
D.To supply

18.   The word they in the second sentence of the first paragraph refers to:
A.Human hair
B.Weight
C.Glass fibers
D.Yarn

19.   The word it in the fourth paragraph refers to:
A.Molten glass
B.Glass wool
C.Spinning drum
D.Holes

20.   The following sentence would best complete which paragraph? “This improvement in technology is expected to continue.”
A.Paragraph 1
B.Paragraph 2
C.Paragraph 3
D.Paragraph 4

21.   A signal of what can be made to travel along fiber for very long distances?
A.Heat
B.Wave
C.Wool
D.Light

22.   The word spray in the fourth paragraph could best be replaced by the word:
A.Shower
B.Blow
C.Spit
D.Force

       For centuries, people have searched for a way to replace dead and decaying teeth with comfortable false teeth. Many materials have been used to make a set of false teeth. The teeth themselves should be made from a hard and durable material. They should be secured to a soft material, making them easy to wear. In the last two decades, dentists succeeded in making durable false teeth that are comfortable, too.
      Two thousand years ago, the Etruscans made teeth out of animal bone and gold. These materials were used-with varying degrees of success-up to the 1700’s. When George Washington was president, ivory from animals such as elephants became a popular material for false teeth. Doctors and inventors also tried silver, peal, and agate, but teeth made from these materials were very expensive. Perhaps the most successful material was porcelain, invented by a Frenchman about two hundred years ago. White, strong, and resistant to decay, porcelain is still used today for making single teeth.
     Besides finding a material for the teeth, inventors also had to find a way to secure them in a person’s mouth. People tried wire, springs, and many kinds of glue to accomplish this. In most cases, however, discomfort and a likelihood of the teeth falling out plagued the person who wore them.
      Around 1844, an American dentist named Horace Wells used laughing gas to put people to sleep before working on their teeth. This innovation made dental work a lot less painful. Soon after, an inventor created the first form of rubber. This was important to dentistry because teeth could be attached to the rubber, and the rubber could be molded to fit the shape of the mouth. With these two developments, dentist could work without causing pain and could fit teeth more carefully. False teeth have become more available and comfortable since then, and dentists have continued to improve the making and use of false teeth.

23.   What is the main topic of this passage?
A.Horace Wells
B.False teeth
C.Gold and bone
D.The Etruscans

24.   The word they in the first paragraph refers to:
A.Teeth
B.Materials
C.People
D.Dentists

25.   The word varying in the second paragraph cold best be replaced by the word:
A.Constant
B.Changeless
C.Fluctuating
D.Stable

26.   Porcelain was invented after the first use of:
A.Rubber for holding for holding teeth in place
B.Laughing gas
C.Ivory for making teeth
D.Electric drills

27.   When did Horace Wells begin using laughing gas?
A.1700
B.Two-thousand years ago
C.1834
D.1844

28.   The word besides in the third paragraph means:
A.In addition to
B.Stand next to
C.Anyway
D.Together

29.   The word them in the third paragraph refers to:
A.Teeth
B.Inventors
C.People
D.Wire

30.   When was rubber found to be a useful material for false teeth?
A.After laughing gas was used to put patients to sleep
B.While George Washington was president
C.Before a Frenchman invented porcelain
D.While the Etruscans were making teeth of bone and gold

31.   The following sentence would best complete which paragraph? “It is unimaginable what will come next.”
A.Paragraph 1
B.Paragraph 2
C.Paragraph 3
D.Paragraph 4

32.   The word molded in the fourth paragraph means:
A.Formed into a shape
B.To form an organic growth
C.To make an ornament
D.The fitting of a shoe

33.   The word resistant in the second paragraph could best be replaced by the word:
A.Prone
B.Insusceptible
C.Hearty
D.Sassy

      The lens on a camera has only two tasks. First, it must gather in as much light as possible in order to activate the sensitive chemicals on the film. Second, it must organize the light rays so that they form a sharp image on the film. These may sound like simple tasks, but they are not.
      One of the sharpest lenses is merely a pinhole in a sheet of cardboard, metal, plastic, or a similar material. If the pinhole is tiny enough, the image can be quite sharp,  but then very little light is admitted. For most purposes, even the most sensitive film would take too long to record an image.
       A glass lens is much better because it lets in much more light and focuses it on the film. Yet simple glass lenses are sharpest only in their centers. As more of the lens is used, the image suffers in sharpness.
      One reason a simple lens can cause problems is that it is shaped like a section of a sphere. Spherical lenses do not focus perfectly on flat film, so the image is slightly distorted, especially at the edges. Another reason is that the lens can act partly like a prism. This means that some of the colors in the image will not focus properly, and the image will be fuzzy.
      One solution is to block off all but the sharp-focusing center of the lens. If you block off the edges of the lens, however, less light will get to the film. Early lenses had to compromise between sharpness and light-gathering power.
      Very sharp lenses that admit as much light as possible can be built by making them with several separate lenses, or elements. A multiple-element lens has from two to nine separate lenses. Some elements are cemented together, and some have a gap between them. Furthermore, the elements are often made of different kinds of glass, each with a different ability to bend light rays. Some of the elements are there just for correcting problems caused by the other elements! The results are worth it, though: pictures can be taken in many different light conditions, and they have a sharpness you
can almost feel.

34.   The word it in the first paragraph refers to:
A.Camera
B.Lens
C.Film
D.Chemicals

35.   The word distorted in the fourth paragraph means:
A.Out of a proper or natural relation
B.Clean and in shape
C.Purified, as one
D.Proper

36.   In what ways does an image suffer if too large an area of the spherical lens is used?
A.The edges of the image become fuzzy
B.Too much light is admitted
C.Too little light is admitted
D.Colors change

37.   What is the main disadvantage of a simple lens that is made sharp by using just the center?
A.With less light-gathering power, the lens is utterly useless.
B.With less light-gathering power, the lens is useful only in bright light.
C.With more light-gathering power, the lens is useful only in dim light.
D.With more light-gathering power, the lens is utterly useless.

38.   The word sharpest in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to:
A.Having clear form and detail
B.Terminating in an edge or a point
C.Intellectually penetrating; astute
D.Having a thin edge or a fine point suitable for or capable of cutting or piercing

39.   The word it in the fourth paragraph refers to...
A.Glass lens
B.Prism
C.Simple lens
D.Flat film

40.   The word sensitive in the second paragraph could best be replaced by the word:
A.Delicate
B.Irritable
C.Reactive
D.Psychic

41.   The word ability in the sixth paragraph could best be replaced by the word ...
A.Ignorance
B.Weakness
C.Ineptness
D.Capacity

42.   The meaning of the word solution as used in the fifth paragraph is closest in meaning to:
A.A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, which may be solids, liquids, gases, or a combination of these
B.The answer to or disposition of a problem
C.The state of being dissolved
D.Release; deliverance; discharge

43.   What is the minimum number of lenses in multiple-element lens?
A.Nine
B.Two
C.Ninety-two
D.Twenty-nine

44.   The word fuzzy in the fourth paragraph means:
A.Clear
B.Unclear
C.Exact
D.Precise

45.   The word admitted in the sixth paragraph is closest in meaning to:
A.To permit to enter
B.To have room for; accommodate
C.To grant to be real, valid, or true; acknowledge
D.To make acknowledgment
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